Civil engineering is the basic engineering branch that combines materials and techniques in the best way and deals with the planning, project, construction and inspection of structures. Civil engineers work on all kinds of buildings, dams, airports, bridges, roads, aqueducts, ports, sewers, water networks, tunnels, railways, high-speed train projects, subways, etc.
It conducts training and research on the planning, design, construction and control of service and industrial buildings. Civil engineering, which is also accepted as the mother of engineering, is the oldest basic engineering branch after military engineering and the English word meaning civil engineering was first used in the 18th century. It was also used to distinguish non-military engineering studies from military engineering.
Civil engineering is one of the founding engineering fields. Since civil engineering covers a wide area, there is a need to specialize in various branches. Major of these fields are environmental engineering, geotechnical, municipal or urban engineering, coastal engineering, surveying information, structural engineering, foundation engineering, water engineering, materials science, transportation engineering, etc. topics.
Civil engineering has been an element of life since the beginning of human existence. The first examples of civil engineering science may have started between 4000 BC and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) regions, when people left the nomadic life and the need for shelter construction arose. During this time, with the development of wheels and sails, transportation became an increasingly important need. Until modern times, there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture.
They were used interchangeably for the civil engineers and architects of the period, often referring to the same person. The construction of the pyramids in Egypt (approximately 2700-2500 BC) is one of the first examples of large building constructions. Other ancient historical civil engineering structures The Temple of Athena (447-438 BC) made in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way (312 BC) built by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng t'ien by order of the Chinese Emperor Shih Huang Ti ( 220 BC) and the Jetavanaramaya in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, are counted as the buddha monument (3rd century).
History of civil engineering science
Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history (civil engineering) is intricately related to the development of the physical and mathematical approach that has continued throughout history. Because civil engineering is such a broad profession, including several separate specialized sub-sciences, its history is linked to knowledge in materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and many other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history, the most important architectural designs and structures were made by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, who rose to become chief architects over time. Experiences have become hidden and are rarely passed on to apprentices who will replace them. Existing structures, roads and infrastructure applications have been repeated and increased exponentially.
When examined in history, civil engineering physics, mathematics, etc. it is seen that there is an application of the concepts related to the subjects. Therefore, its background is also evaluated together with mathematics and physics. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering are works of practical solution such as the Archimedes Principle and the Archimedean Screw, which formed the basis of our understanding of Archimedes' buoyancy in the 3rd century BC. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, M.S. It used arithmetic based on Hindu-Arabic numerals for excavation calculations in the 7th century.
Civil engineers typically hold an academic degree important to civil engineering. The length of education for such a degree is usually 3-5 years. While some universities designate it as a Bachelor of Science, usually the degree completed is referred to as a Bachelor of Engineering. This degree awarded includes units covering specific topics in physics, mathematics, project management, design and civil engineering. Initially, such topics cover most, if not all, of the civil engineering sub-engineering. Towards the end of undergraduate education, students choose one or more sub-engineering specializations. Although students with a bachelor's degree (ing: BEng/BSc) are officially recognized to be able to provide engineering services, some universities in Turkey offer graduate engineering education for students to specialize in a particular field of interest.
In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering is the first step towards becoming a specialist in the profession, and the degree program has to be previously approved by another specialized body. After completing a certified degree program, requirements such as work experience and exam requirements must be met before an engineer certificate can be awarded. After the license certificate is given, she/he receives the titles of Specialist Engineer in America, Canada and South Africa, Privileged Engineer in many Commonwealths of Nations, Privileged Specialist Engineer in Australia and New Zealand, and European Engineer in many European Union Member Countries. There are international engineering agreements between the relevant professional organizations of many communities, allowing engineers to practice across international borders, and engineering certificates are considered valid.
The advantages of different certificates issued by different countries may differ according to the country in which the engineering certificate is issued. For example, in the United States and Canada, only a licensed engineer is authorized to sign and seal, may submit engineering plans and drawings to the public for approval, and may also provide engineering services for the public or private sector. This requirement is regulated by state and provincial legislation, such as the Québec Engineers Act. In other countries, there is no such legislation. For example, in Australia, the license of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Almost all countries have non-governmental organizations that protect engineers from risk and unethical behavior. In this way, these organizations play an important role in ensuring ethical standards for the profession. Engineering services have to comply with many state laws and environmental laws, such as the regulations of these non-governmental organizations. In the eyes of these laws, there may be criminal sanctions for excessive negligence.
There is no typical career path for civil engineers. Many qualified civil engineers start out with low-responsibility jobs, and as they prove their competence, they gain confidence for jobs and tasks that demand a higher level of responsibility. However, each branch of the civil engineering profession requires following different career paths. In some fields and companies, entry-level engineers may start from the construction monitoring department as the "eyes and ears" of senior design engineers, while in some fields and companies they may start working in routine analysis, design and interpretation. Experienced engineers, on the other hand, often serve in more complex and demanding jobs and tasks, such as in forensic engineering, including complex analysis work, management of more complex design projects, management of other engineers, or private consultancy.